Cataract Studies30 total
Vitamin C Might Prevent Cataracts in Women BOSTON, Feb 22, 2002 (United Press International via COMTEX) -- Women who take vitamin C supplements during their younger and middle-age years may reduce their chances of cataracts later in life, according to a new study released Friday. Researchers led by Allan Taylor of Tufts University in Boston came to that conclusion after analyzing data from the Nurses Health Study, an on-going study based on a group of women nurses in the Boston area whose diet, lifestyle and health status have been followed for the past 26 years. They looked at 492 non-diabetic study participants ages 53 to 73 and reviewed their diets, particularly their long-term vitamin supplement intake, extracted from food questionnaires dating from 1980 up to 1995. All of the women underwent eye examinations to screen for a variety of cataracts. Thirty-four percent of the group was found to have cortical opacities, a type of cataract where the fiber cells of the cortex deteriorate. Study results showed that among women age 60 and younger, daily vitamin C intake from both diet and supplements during the previous 13 to 15 years of the woman's life significantly minimized the chances of developing that one type of cataract. Among women younger than 60, consumption of 362 milligrams daily of vitamin C was linked with a 57 percent drop in cortical opacities. Routine use of vitamin C supplements for at least a decade was associated with an overall 60 percent reduction in cataracts when compared to no vitamin supplement use. Researchers also found women who never smoked and had high intakes of the nutrients folate and carotenoids also showed a reduction in cataracts. The findings suggest certain nutrients, when taken consistently and regularly throughout life, could potentially decrease the chances of one of the most common age-related conditions. The study is published in Friday's issue of American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Alpha lipoic acid Alpha Lipoic Acid can prevent cataract formation as well as nerve degeneration and radiation injury. Packer, et al. Free Radic Biol Med 1995 Aug;19(2):227-50
Antioxidants May Slow Cataract Progression 11/21/01 - NEW ORLEANS - A nutritional diet that includes beta-carotene (18 mg/day), vitamin C (750 mg/day) and vitamin E (600 mg/day) has been shown to modify the progression of cataracts, according to the Roche European-American Cataract Trial results.
Of the 297 patients randomized in the trial, 231 were followed for 2 years, 158 were followed for 3 years and 36 were followed for 4 years. After a 3-month placebo run-in, patients were randomized by clinical center to vitamin or placebo control group and followed every 4 months. No statistically significant differences existed between treatment groups at baseline. After 2 years of treatment, a small positive effect was noted in the U.S. group; at 3 years, positive effects were noted in both the U.S. and U.K. groups. The results were discussed at the American Academy of Ophthalmology meeting held in November, 2001.
Bilberry and vitamin E In one study, a combination of bilberry and vitamin E stopped cataract formation in 97 percent of the patients - without side effects. Bravetti, G.O. Preventive medical treatment of senile cataract with vitamin E and Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. Clinical evaluation. Ann Ottalmol Clinical Ocul. 115 (1989): 109.
Dietary lutein and cryptoxanthin Dietary lutein and cryptoxanthin were associated with 70% lower risk of nuclear cataracts in those under age 65. Lyle, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Feb;69(2):272-7
Lipoic acid Studies have shown beneficial effects of lipoic acid treatment on cataracts in rats. It may be of therapeutic use in preventing human cataracts and their associated complications. Lipoic acid has also been used to treat glaucoma. Kilic F; Handelman GJ; Serbinova E; Packer L; Trevithick JR. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis 17: in vitro effect of a-lipoic acid on glucose-induced lens membrane damage, a model of diabetic cataractogenesis. Biochem Mol Biol Int, 1995 Oct, 37:2, 361-70
Low levels of vitamin E Low blood levels of vitamin E were associated with approximately twice the risk of both cortical and nuclear cataracts, compared to median or high levels. Vitale, et al. Epidemiology 1993 May;4(3):195-203
Low levels of vitamin E Like low levels of beta-carotene, a low level of vitamin E also increases cataract risk and reduces photooxidation. Roberton, J.M. A possible role for vitamin C and E in cataract prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (1991): 3465-3515
Lutein and Cataract Prevention Harvard Study Shows Relationship Between Higher Intake of Lutein and Lower Incidence of Cataracts
Researchers at the Harvard Medical School now report that the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may be particularly effective in preventing cataracts. Their studies involved almost 80,000 females nurses and over 35,000 male health professionals who were enrolled in 1980 and 1986 respectively. The female study group completed diet questionnaires in 1980 and 1984 and were then followed up until 1992 at which time 1471 cataract extractions had been performed. The male group completed diet questionnaires in 1986 and were followed up until 1994 at which time 840 cataract extractions had been performed.
The researchers found that nurses with a high intake of lutein and zeaxanthin had a 22 per cent lower risk of cataract extraction than did women with the lowest intake. Among the men, the 20 per cent with the highest intake had a 19 per cent lower risk when compared with the 20 per cent with the lowest intake. The researchers found a significant protective effect of spinach, kale and broccoli, but found no significant effects of other carotenoids and could not confirm a previously reported protective effect of vitamin A. They conclude that lutein and zeaxanthin may reduce the risk of cataract formation and recommend daily consumption of fruits and vegetables high in carotenoids. Chasan-Taber, Lisa, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, October 1999, pp. 509-16 Brown, Lisa, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, October 1999, pp. 517-24 Mares-Perlman, Julie A. Too soon for lutein supplements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, October 1999, pp. 431-2 (editorial)
Lutein and Zeaxanthin
(a) Xanthophylls Lutein and zeaxanthin) are the only carotenoids detected inhuman lens. Elevated plasma or nutrient intake levels of antioxidant vitamins, such as carotenoids, ... are associated with diminished risk for cataract... Elevated intake of spinach, which is high in lutein and zeaxanthin ..... was most consistently associated with a lower risk for cataract extraction. Elevations in lipid antioxidant status is associated with prolonged lens function.
(b) Xanthophylls are likely to eliminate the phototoxic blue light selectively. (c) There is a strong inverse association between elevated consumption of dark green vegetables, which are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, and a decreased risk for oxidative stress related diseases such as cataract and cancer.
(d) Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids that have been reported to be present in several sites of the human eye, such as the retina and the macula. Lutein and zeaxanthin are also the only carotenoids present inhuman lens. Consumption of spinach, which is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin showed a consistent inverse relationship with risk of cataract. Carotenoid intake is related to the risk for cataract. KJ Yeum etal, "Measurement of Carotenoids, Retinoids, and Tocopherols in Human Lenses," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, December, 1995, Vol. 36. No. 13, pp. 2756-2761.
Riboflavin, vitamins C, E and carotene, niacin and thiamine Dietary intake of riboflavin, vitamins C, E, and carotene, niacin, and thiamine significantly decreased the risk of all cataract types. Combining the different antioxidant nutrients produced the greatest effect. Leske, et al. Arch Ophthalmol 1991 Feb;109(2):244-51.
Smoking Cigarette smoking causes about 20 percent of all cataracts. Men who smoke more than a pack a day increase their risk for cataracts by 205 percent.; for female smokers, risk increases 63 percent. Christan, W.G. et al. Cigarette smoking and the risks of cataract. Investigative Ophthalmology. In ARVO Abstracts, April 1991. Also, Christen, W.G., and Seddon, J.M. Cigarette smoking and cataract. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 9 (1993): 65-66.
Sugar can impair the lens All types of sugars, not just white sugar, can impair the len's ability to keep itself clear. Gaby, A.R., and Wright, J.V. Nutritional Factors in Degenerative Eye Disorders: Cataract and Macular Degeneration. Wright/Gaby Nutritional Institute, 1991.
Vitamin A In the Nurses Health Study, a large cohort of nurses had been following for almost 20 years. In this longitudinal study, increased dietary intake of Vitamin A was associated with a 39% reduction in risk of cataract extraction. Hankinson, S.E. Stampfer, M.J. et al. BMJ Vol.305,1992.
Vitamin A In the Nutrition and Eye Disease Study, moderate levels of Vitamin A intake were associated overall with a 40% decreased risk of nuclear sclerotic opacity (p=0.0002). This risk was adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and heavy drinking. Among smokers, risk of cataract was reduced 50%. Mares-Perelman, J.A., Klein, B.E.K., et al. Relationship Between Lens Opacities and Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use. Ophthalmology 1944;101:315-325.
Vitamin C Subjects taking vitamin C supplements for more than 10 years had a 77% lower risk of early lens opacities (cataracts) and 83% lower risk of moderate lens opacities. Jacques, et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Oct. 1997
Vitamin C The vitamin C content of the eye is 20 times greater than that in the blood. Results from some studies including the Beaver Dam Eye Study, suggest that people with high levels of vitamin C are at less risk of cataracts than those with low levels of vitamin C. Mares Perlman JA; Brady WE; Klein BE; Klein R; Haus GJ; Palta M; Ritter LL; Shoff SM. Diet and nuclear lens opacities. Am J Epidemiol, 1995 Feb, 141:4, 322-34
Vitamin C Further results from the Nurses Health Study this study reported in 1997 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition also suggests that vitamin C supplements taken for long periods can reduce the development of cataracts. Researchers from the US Department of Agriculture and Harvard School of Public Health examined the link between cataract development and vitamin C supplement use over a ten to 12 year period. The subjects were 247 Boston area nurses aged from 56 to 71. The researchers performed detailed eye examinations to determine the degree of opacity (clouding) of the lenses of the eyes of the subjects. Results showed that use of vitamin C supplements for over ten years was associated with a 77 per cent lower prevalence of early lens opacities and an 83 per cent lower prevalence of moderate lens opacities. Jacques PF; Taylor A; Hankinson SE; Willett WC; Mahnken B; Lee Y; Vaid K; Lahav M. Long-term vitamin C supplement use and prevalence of early age-related lens opacities. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997 Oct, 66:4, 911-6
Vitamin C In studies done since 1935, vitamin C has been shown to prevent and even reverse the negative effects of sugar on the eyes. Blondin, J., Baragi, V.K., Schwartz, E.R., Sadowski, J., and Taylor, A. Prevention of eye lens protein damage by dietary vitamin C. Federal Prodceedings 45 (1986): 478.
Vitamin E The Lens Opacity Case Control1 and Study and a Canadian study by Robertson, Donner and Trevithic2 each suggested about a 40-45% descreased risk of cataract or opacity with higher vitamin E intake through diet or supplement use.1 Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, Wu S. The lens opacities case control study:risk factors for cataract. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109;244-251. 2Robertson JM, Donner AP, Trevithick JR. A possible role for vitamins C and E in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:346S-351S.
Vitamin E, C, alpha-lipoic acid and taurine Vitamin E, vitamin C, alpha-lipoic acid, and taurine appear to offer protection against lens damage caused by low level radiation. Bantseev, et al. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1997 Sept;42(6):1189-97.
Subjects taking vitamin C supplements for more than 10 years had a 45-77% lower risk of early lens opacities (cataracts) and 83% lower risk of moderate lens opacities. The higher the serum levels, the lower the risk of cataracts. Jacques, et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Oct. 1997. S.E. Hankinson, et al. 1992. BMJ: 305: 335-339. Simon JA, Hudes ES J Clin Epidemiol 1999 Dec;52(12):1207-11
Vitamin E, vitamin C, alpha-lipoic acid, and taurine appear to offer protection against lens damage caused by low level radiation. Bantseev, et al. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1997 Sep;42(6):1189-97.
Dietary lutein and cryptoxanthin were associated with 70% lower risk of nuclear cataracts in those under age 65. Lyle, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Feb;69(2):272-7.
Dietary intake of protein, vitamins A, C, E, and carotene, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine significantly decreased the risk of all cataract types. (Combining a variety of antioxidant nutrients produced the greatest effect.) Cumming RG, et al. Ophthalmology 2000 Mar;107(3):450-6 Leske, et al. Arch Ophthalmol 1991 Feb;109(2):244-51.
Vitamin E taken with bilberry extract stopped the progression of senile cortical cataracts in 97% of the eyes of human subjects. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul, 1989.
Low blood levels of vitamin E were associated with approximately twice the risk of both cortical and nuclear cataracts, compared to median or high levels. Vitale, et al. Epidemiology 1993 May;4(3):195-203
Smokers were 2.6 times as likely to develop posterior subcapsular cataracts than nonsmokers. Hankinson, et al. JAMA 1992 Aug 26;268(8):994-8
Patients with senile cataracts were found to have significantly lower blood and intraocular levels of the mineral selenium than controls. Karakucuk S, et al. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1995 Aug;73(4):329-32
Alpha lipoic acid can help prevent cataract formation as well as nerve degeneration and radiation injury. Packer, et al. Free Radic Biol Med 1995 Aug;19(2):227-50